Farmers may be among the worst affected group by adverse climate change conditions but at the same time, agriculture contributes up to 25 per cent of the total greenhouse gas emission through deforestation, agrochemicals manufacturing and emission from soils.
The Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005 by committing Parties to internationally set binding emission reduction targets.
According to the Kyoto Protocol, countries must reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by 2012, thus continued to shape up the climate change and development agendas putting agriculture at the center of the discussion considering that it plays a key role in mitigation and adaptation mechanism. This initiated talks about the establishment of Adaptation Fund which was established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Since the ratification of the of Kyoto protocol, partners to the UNFCCC and environmental movements have been focusing on the opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol for adaptation and mitigation of climate change. These mechanisms include economic and financial investments towards green projects like green energy, smart farming, wind farm and agroforestry that spur global growth and response to climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Under the Kyoto protocol, the adaptation funds were introduced to help farmers in Africa to build resiliency to harmful impacts of climate change. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), during the 29th Meeting on Adaption Fund Board, approved $6.8million under “Agricultural Climate Resilience Enhancement Initiative (ACREI)” for countries in the Horn of Africa. WMO further noted that $357.5 million adaptation funds have benefited 63 developing countries since the year 2010.